Publications

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  • Alleviation of Poverty
    • Milleniumdoel 2: Alle kinderen naar school

      May 2016Sen FoundationJacintha van der Plas, Msc.Dutch

      Zo luidt Millenniumdoel 2, opgesteld in de Millenniumverklaring van 2000, om wereldwijd voor 2015 de grote problemen op het gebied van onderwijs aan te pakken (NCDO, www.NCDO.nl). In ontwikkelingslanden gaan miljoenen kinderen niet naar school. Zij worden thuis gehouden om een bijdrage te leveren aan het gezinsinkomen en het huishouden te ondersteunen. Verplicht en toegankelijk basisonderwijs is een belangrijk middel in de strijd tegen armoede. Onderwijs geeft kinderen kennis en hiermee de kans zich verder te ontwikkelen naarmate zij ouder worden. Zo wordt hun arbeidspositie beter en krijgen zij meer kansen voor de toekomst.

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      Alle kinderen naar school - Millenniumdoel 2
    • What are the best practices to promote sexual and reproductive health and rights more effectively, in order to encourage more balanced and sustainable population growth in countries like Niger?

      December 2016The Hague University of Applied SciencesLucie KranefeldEnglish

      This research serves the purpose of exploring, analyzing, and advising on the existing and possible approaches for the promotion of sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) in weak states with high natality and low social securities, such as Niger, with reference to Rutgers’ experiences in SRHR projects. The ultimate goal is to find out which courses of actions are the most effective in increasing SRHR and encouraging sustainable population growth for countries like Niger.

      The central research question of this study is formulated as following: What are the best practices to promote sexual and reproductive health and rights more effectively, in order to encourage more balanced and sustainable population growth in countries like Niger?

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      What are the best practices to promote sexual and reproductive health and rights more effectively, in order to encourage more balanced and sustainable population growth in countries like Niger?
    • De rol van multinational in de strijd tegen armoede

      May 2013Sen FoundationRogier van VoordenDutch

      In 2010 leefden er wereldwijd 1.2 miljard mensen onder de extreme armoedegrens van 1.25 dollar per dag. Een van de targets van het eerste Millennium Ontwikkelingsdoel, waarin wordt gestreefd naar het eindigen van honger en armoede, betreft het halveren van het aantal mensen ten opzichte van 1990 dat zich onder deze grens bevindt (United Nations, 2013a:6-7). De Millennium Ontwikkelingsdoelen zijn acht doelen die in 2000 door 189 landen zijn aangenomen en die grotendeels in 2015 behaald dienen te worden (United Nations, 2006:26). In delen van Azië worden het eerste Millennium Ontwikkelingsdoel grotendeels behaald. Echter, in Afrika en in de armere landen van Azië is dit niet het geval.

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      De rol van multinationals in de strijd tegen armoede De rol van multinationals in de strijd tegen armoede (korte versie)
  • Climate and Ecology
    • Plastic soep

      January 2014Sen FoundationJacintha van der Plas, Msc.Dutch

      Het is het jaar 1997. Oceanograaf Charles Moore vaart in zijn 15 meter lange catamaran van Hawaï naar Californië via de golfstroom van de Grote Oceaan. Dit gedeelte van de Grote Oceaan is relatief windstil en wordt daarom door de meeste zeilers gemeden. Moore ontdekt in het oostelijk deel van de golfstroom een fenomeen dat later de naam ‘Great Pacific Garbage Patch’1 zou krijgen, ofwel ‘plastic soep’. Wat hij zag was een enorme hoeveelheid drijvend afval, veelal plastic. In het gebied bleek een enorme plastic soep te drijven, samengesteld uit allerlei soorten afval: visnetten, petflessen, flessendopjes, tandenborstels en ook minuscuul kleine plastic deeltjes die hem, ironisch genoeg, aan minestronesoep deden denken.

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      Plastic Soep
    • Algae Farming

      April 2013Sen FoundationTamás JuracsekEnglish

      Algae is not yet a well-known source for the needs of humans. In the last decades however, increasing numbers of people see the advantages of this very versatile organism. Scientists across the world are trying to develop different techniques to use algae for food, fodder, medicine, bio fuel or environmental purification. The aim of this paper is to show how algae can be used. How can algae help solve the water and food shortage especially in the developing world?

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      Algae Farming by Tamas Juracsek
    • Het CO2 probleem – Een paper over het verminderen van CO2 in de atmosfeer

      May 2013Sen FoundationRogier van VoordenDutch

      De temperatuur op aarde stijgt de afgelopen decennia gestaag. Deze temperatuurstijging wordt mede veroorzaakt door de uitstoot van broeikasgassen. Door broeikasgassen in de atmosfeer kan de warmte van zonnestralen minder goed worden afgevoerd. De lucht wordt vervuild door verschillende broeikasgassen. Als men het over broeikasgassen heeft zijn koolstofdioxide, methaan, stikstofdioxide en zwaveldioxide de bekendste.

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      Het CO2 probleem - Een paper over het verminderen van CO2 in de atmosfeer
    • De Noordpool als energiebron, ecosysteem, leefgebied en toekomstig strijdtoneel

      2012/2013Sen FoundationThomas MurrayDutch

      Hoe ziet de toekomst eruit en hoe kunnen wij deze beïnvloeden?

      De Noordpool trekt de aandacht. Eeuwenlang is het alleen gebruikt voor de jacht op walvissen en zeehonden, maar nu maken energiebedrijven zich klaar om er olie en gas te halen. Dit alles wordt mede mogelijk gemaakt door een andere grote verandering: het smeltend poolijs.

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      De Noordpool
    • Water

      Sen FoundationJoanette van der Mey

      Onze planeet bestaat voor een groot deel uit water: ongeveer twee derde deel van de aardkorst is ermee bedekt. Waarom op onze planeet zoveel water in vloeibare vorm aanwezig is in vergelijking met de andere planeten in ons zonnestelsel is niet geheel duidelijk. Het menselijk lichaam bestaat voor ongeveer 65% uit water, naar gelang leeftijd en geslacht. Dieren en planten bestaan eveneens voor een groot deel uit water. Zonder water is geen leven mogelijk en dat gegeven wordt belangrijk als we beseffen dat in 2050 waarschijnlijk 9,6 miljard mensen op aarde zullen leven4. Zal voor al die mensen genoeg water beschikbaar zijn? Waar is bruikbaar zoet water beschikbaar? Hoe gaan we het gebruiken? Hoe zal het verdeeld gaan worden? Dit zijn een paar vraagstukken die in dit paper behandeld gaan worden.

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      WATER
  • Economy and Finances
    • Lessons from Ukraine

      January 2017University of LeidenBarboutev, I.K.English

      This study aims to examine the impact of IMF programs in Ukraine during the period between 1994 and 2002. Many questions have been raised about the effectiveness of IMF-backed adjustment programs. Some Ukrainian politicians and academics have been eager to blame the fund for Ukraine’s transition woes. 9 After the efficacy of the Fund’s reforms is evaluated, I will attempt to scrutinize whether the economic impact observed was mainly a result of the IMF’s conditionality or of domestic political factors.

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      Lessons from Ukraine
    • Oil Smuggling as A Variable In The Greek Crisis’ Equation

      August 2014Bridging EuropeVasileios P. KarakasisEnglish

      The report initially describes how the fuel market works in Greece. In doing so, it underlines the problematic aspects of this modus operandi by paying special attention to the phenomenon of oil smuggling that has become dominant in the realm of the Greek economy. The third part will assess the influence that this phenomenon exerts on the taxpayers’ income. The report concludes with certain measures that should be taken in order to tackle this phenomenon.

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      Oil Smuggling as A Variable In The Greek Crisis' Equation
    • The International Financial Institutions, Human Rights and Private Capture

      July 2014Sen FoundationRamón LohmarEnglish

      How Greater Commitment towards Human Rights Can Contribute to Global Economic Stability?

      The financial crisis that erupted 2008 in the United States, spread all across the globe and spilled over into the real economy, has unveiled the extreme volatility and interconnectedness of today’s global economy. Since then, economic experts, accomplished authors and university professors alike have furthered their arguments as to the causes of this event: their analyses range from liquidity floods (Chandrasekhar 2011) to global imbalances (Helleiner 2011b), from excessive risk-taking behaviour of bankers (Lane and Maeland 2011) to ever-growing income inequality (Stiglitz 2012). Together, they paint a complete picture of the state of today’s global economy. At its core, it is one in which private profits and social returns have become increasingly misaligned.

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      Human Rights - Private Capture
    • Tax Evasion: Greece’s Jigsaw Puzzle

      January 2014Bridging EuropeVasileios P. KarakasisEnglish

      Central aim of the paper is to analyze the reasons why paying taxes in Greece makes someone an “irrational” actor. it presents certain incentives that encourage tax evasion in the country. The first part will briefly document the level of tax evasion in Greece. The second part will list all the stimulants that have prompted the phenomenon of tax evasion in the country. Finally, the report will comment on the words of the former Greece’s Finance Minister, according to which “Greeks are not overtaxed”.

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      Tax Evasion- Greece’s Jigsaw Puzzle
    • Een betere belasting op vermogen?

      2012‐2014Sen FoundationR.P. (Robert) van der Laan, L. (Lebna) de Voogd – el Mhamdi, J.J.F. (Joost) Weekers en O.L.A. (Olaf) WildersDutch

      Dit rapport beoogt te onderzoeken of en hoe de belastingheffing op (winst uit) vermogen kan worden verbeterd (lees: verhoogd), met als mogelijk effect dat de fiscale druk op arbeid kan worden verlaagd, ten gunste van werkgelegenheidsgroei.

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      Vermogensbelasting
    • Regional Cooperation for peace and economic growth

      Sen FoundationVictor MaertensEnglish

      The European Union’s predecessor, the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) was established in the wake of the Second World War in 1952. The ECSC, while at its core an economic community, played a far more vital role bringing 6 belligerent nations of WWII together. One of the reasons for linking these six nations (France, Western Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxemburg) economically was to serve as a means to deter further violence and conflict among them and incorporate Western Germany into Europe.

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      Regional Cooperation for peace and economic growth
  • Geen categorie @en
    • Lessons in Dutch to Ukrainians/ part time position for a Dutch student-teacher

  • Migration and Integration
    • Explaining Germany’s refugee policy change in 2015 using Kingdon’s Multiple Stream Framework; in comparison with the Netherlands

      April 2017University of LeidenKathinka Luisa GaessEnglish

      This research explores the extent to which Kingdon’s Multiple Streams Framework (MSF) explains the difference in the asylum policy approaches of Germany and the Netherlands during 2015. Both countries had been conducting restrictive asylum policies during the past 20 years. However, in 2015, at the peak of the European refugee crisis, Germany abruptly transformed its approach to refugees into an open-door policy while the Netherlands continued with its restrictive approach. This led to a remarkable difference in the number of asylum seekers both countries received in 2015; a divergence which served as a point of departure for this research. This paper mainly focuses on the case study of Germany’s asylum policy. However, my findings are being compared to a synchronic analysis of the Dutch refugee policy by my colleague Lucia Overpelt.

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      Explaining Germany’s refugee policy change in 2015 using Kingdon’s Multiple Stream Framework; in comparison with the Netherlands
    • Explaining change and stability with Multiple Streams Framework (MSF) in the Netherlands and Germany during the 2015 refugee crisis

      May 2015University of LeidenLucia OverpeltEnglish

      This research investigates the ability of the Multiple Streams Framework (MSF) to explain the development of different refugee policy approaches of the Netherlands and Germany during the 2015 refugee crisis. This framework explains that abrupt change occurs when a problem, policy and political streams are coupled at a window of opportunity. When both countries were targeted by a high influx of refugees in 2015, the German government adopted a more welcoming approach, whilst the Dutch government maintained a restrictive approach. By comparing change to non – change windows, this research aims to strengthen the explanatory power of the MSF through a chronologicalreconstruction of events. The research concludes that even though the policy approaches developed into different directions and under different circumstances, the MSF disregards the same contextual and institutional factors to accurately describe this difference.

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      Explaining change and stability with Multiple Streams Framework (MSF) in the Netherlands and Germany during the 2015 refugee crisis
    • Integration policies in Europe – A comparison between France and the Netherlands

      July 2016University of LeidenMariska KapteinEnglish

      This thesis is a comparative study between French and Dutch integration models. It attempts to answer the question which model is more effective in integrating immigrants. The period selected for this study is the 1980s and the 1990s, when the French integration model was assimilationist and the Dutch model was multicultural. The results of this thesis are mixed. On the one hand, the French assimilationist integration model seems to enhance the relative participation rate of immigrants, to reduce their relative unemployment rate and to enhance their proficiency in French. On the other hand, the Dutch multicultural integration model seems more effective when measured through the level of education of immigrants, their rate of naturalization and the rate of exogamy. Indeed, on these three indicators, immigrants in the Netherlands score higher. At the end of this thesis, the limitations of this research will be developed.

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      Integration policies in Europe
  • Other
    • De effecten van directe democratie – Een analyse van twee nationale referenda in Nederland

      July 2016University of LeidenMerle PrastDutch

      In western democracies there are signs of a democratic recession, there is a decline in political participation levels, and there is little trust in governing institutions. In response, a popular remedy that is often proposed by scholars and politicians is direct democracy. As direct democracy allows citizens to directly vote on questions, it is argued that it has the potential to increase the political participation of citizens and decrease political dissatisfaction. The goal of this thesis is to research whether these claimed effects about direct democracy are observed when analysing two national referenda in the Netherlands. As a referendum is direct-democracy institution, it is looked upon whether the effects of the two referenda corroborate the claims that exist about direct democracy. The key research question that this thesis will seek to address is, then,: to what extent can the claimed effects about direct democracy be observed when analysing two Dutch referenda?

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      De effecten van directe democratie - Een analyse van twee nationale referenda in Nederland
    • The Singaporean Development Model

      2014Sen FoundationVictor MaertensEnglish

      Younger than the current generation of pensioners, Singapore who gained full independence in 1965 will be celebrating fifty years of independence next year. This young state propelled itself from a considerably poor state with few natural resources into one of the most efficient and rich states on the globe. A centre of industry and education, Singapore can be seen by many in the third world as a role model for development. This begs the question, can Singapore’s remarkable success be replicated elsewhere and be used as a new framework for developing countries to employ? Unfortunately, the answer is no. This paper will outline the different facets of the Singaporean state and its development to outline the rationale and the ‘Singaporean model’.

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      The Singaporean Development Model
    • An Index for Measuring Wellbeing: GDP and Beyond

      E.M. (Elise) LandowskiEnglish

      Gross domestic product (GDP) is the most widely used measure of economic activity. In reality, however, things are more complicated. First, prices may not exist for some goods and services. This raises the question of how these services should be valued. Second, even where there are market prices, they may deviate from society’s underlying valuation. In particular, when the consumption or production of particular products affects society as a whole, the price that individuals pay for those products will differ from their value to society at large (Stiglitz, Sen & Fitoussi: 2009). Emphasizing the required shift from measuring economic production to measuring people’s wellbeing, a renewed framework for measuring a country’s performance is needed. This paper proposes an alternative framework for measurement.

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      An Index for Measuring Wellbeing: GDP and Beyond
    • Jihadisme in Noordelijk Afrika

      2012Sen Foundation and Nederlandse Defensie AcademieSoumia Ait-Hida, Theo BrinkelDutch

      Sinds de jaren negentig zijn op veel plaatsen in de wereld jihadistische terroristische organisaties actief. Zoals bijvoorbeeld in Afghanistan, Irak, Indonesië en Somalië. Niet alleen ver weg, ook in het meer nabije Noord Afrika baart een terroristische organisatie die zichzelf noemt “Al-Qaida in de Islamitische Maghreb” (AQIM), de nodige zorgen. En in het olierijke Nigeria, een dichtbevolkt land op de scheidslijn tussen islam en christendom, lijkt de ideologie van al-Qaida in opkomst met het optreden van de terroristische organisatie “Boko Haram”, die alles wat westers is verwerpelijk vindt.

      De voorliggende rapportage bevat de tweede druk van een analyse van twee jihadistische extremistische organisaties en bewegingen in Noordelijk Afrika. De voorbeelden – AQIM en Boko Haram – zijn genomen uit de landen van de Maghreb, de Sahel en het grensgebied tussen islam en christendom.

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      Jihadisme in Noordelijk Afrika
    • Moderne slavernij

      Sen FoundationHannah UijterlindeDutch

      Slavernij bestaat vandaag de dag nog steeds, ondanks de ‘Universal Declaration of Human Rights’ uit 1948 en het aanvullend verdrag uit 1956 inzake de afschaffing van de slavernij en met slavernij vergelijkbare praktijken. Wie zijn de slachtoffers en wat kan er gedaan worden?

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      Moderne slavernij
    • Drones en Robotsoldaten; doden met één druk op de knop

      Sen FoundationMartijn van LuenenDutch

      In de laatste jaren is er een nieuw type wapen in gebruik genomen. Drones, ook wel onbemande luchtvoertuigen genoemd, maken het mogelijk om spionagemissies uit te voeren maar ook doelen uit te schakelen zonder dat een piloot of een andere militair aan boord het voertuig bestuurt. Deze drones worden op afstand bestuurd door een piloot of zo geprogrammeerd dat helemaal geen piloot nodig is. Sinds 2009 wordt steeds meer gebruikt gemaakt van drones, met name in de zogenoemde ‘’war on terror’’ door de Verenigde Staten. Israël, het Verenigd Koninkrijk (dat eind 2012 ‘’vijf nieuwe drones kocht om te gebruiken tijdens missies in Afghanistan’’ (Hopkins, 2012)) en China beschikken ook over deze technologie, Duitsland is plannen aan het maken voor de aanschaf ervan. De focus zal liggen op Amerikaans gebruik van drones omdat zij de grote actor zijn op dit gebied. Dit essay onderzoekt of het gebruik van drones en robotsoldaten ethisch verantwoord is.

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      Ethiek van drone aanvallen
    • Islam kan liberaliseren

      Sen FoundationRuben TuitelDutch

      Islam wordt vaak gerelateerd aan terrorisme of onderdrukking. Terroristische acties van moslims ergens anders in de wereld kunnen ertoe leiden dat ze hier in Nederland, maar ook in de rest van de wereld als terroristen worden gezien. Omgekeerd geldt hetzelfde voor moslims die leven in Europa en de VS. Zij kunnen Westerse oorlogshandelingen tegen moslim staten interpreteren als bewijs dat het Westen het op de islam heeft gemunt. Negatieve opvattingen over de islam zijn niet allemaal terecht en de negatieve kijk op het westen van moslims is ook niet altijd reëel. Ook in de islam zijn aanknopingspunten te vinden voor westerse democratie en rechtsstatelijkheid. Er zijn nieuwe stromingen in de islam.

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      Islam kan Liberaliseren
  • Peacebuilding and Conflict Prevention
    • Building Peace Symposium

      English

      This file contains the content from the Building Peace Symposium whereas our Director, Joris Voorhoeve, has been a main speaker.

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      W1802 0641_A5_symposium_C

    • Russia, Turkey and Bosnia-Herzegovina, A study of operational codes which may harm peacebuilding

      Spring 2017Leiden UniversityHans van den BergEnglish and Dutch

      Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) is a beautiful but troubled state that seems to be unable to move on from its past. Political reform, stability and peace are not as sure as many like to think. The country has made great progress, working towards NATO membership and filing an official EU candidacy application. International actors, institutions and organisations seem to be its main obstabcles. Some argue the Office of the High Representative (OHR) is like a governor forcing policies and legislation. Others promote the positive influence of such organisations; guaranteeing peace, stability, implementation of the Dayton Accords and preventing eruption of new hostilities. In my research on BiH I found that two states, Russia and Turkey, exert considerable influence on the Bosniak and Serb segments of BiH. It is their actions and policy which have left me to question what their impact has been on the development of BiH.

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      Russia, Turkey and Bosnia-Herzegovina, A study of Operational Codes which may harm Peacebuilding
    • The UN Stand-by High Readiness Brigade

      June 2017 University of AmsterdamBjörn Stenholm Dutch and German

      De UN Stand-by High-Readiness Brigade [SHIRBRIG] was een initiatief van Denemarken in 1995 en had ten doel om parate slagkracht te creëren ten bate van Peace Keeping operaties van de Verenigde Naties. De voornaamste aanleiding tot de oprichting van SHIRBRIG was de genocide in Rwanda in 1994. Als permanente standplaats voor een hoofdkwartier wees men de 30 kilometer ten Noorden van Kopenhagen gelegen Garder-kazerne te Høvelte aan. 

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      The UN Stand-by High Readiness Brigade
    • Kosovo – A study in Peacebuilding after Secession and the Role of External Actors

      June 2017University of LeidenMihailo JoveticEnglish

      Since the end of the conflict in 1999 and its unilateral declaration of independence from Serbia, Kosovo has been subject to several international peacekeeping and peacebuilding missions. This thesis looks at what impact external actors can have in the peacebuilding process after secession and to what extent they can accelerate or hinder the process of state-building and developing of institutions. The thesis makes use of a proto-theory which sketches several variables by which one can determine to what extent there is good governance in a state. The conclusion of the research is that external actors have even more influence in Kosovo than was expected, and that this influence is embedded in the institutional design of Kosovo due to the way Kosovo became what it is today.

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      Kosovo- A study in Peacebuilding after Secession and the Role of External Actors
    • Safe Areas? Failures and Successes in Protecting Civilians in War.

      2015Atlas Contact PublishersJoris VoorhoeveEnglish

      What measures are to be taken by the international community to protect civilians in a war which cannot be ended by an external humanitarian intervention? How to execute more effectively the Responsibility to Protect? This book tries to answer these questions by comparing 15 cases in recent international history. From 1948 till 2014 eight more or less succesfull interventions by the international community stand against 7 serious failures.

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      Press release Safe Areas
    • Conflict Resolution Vs Conflict Transformation

      January 2014Bridging EuropeVasileios P. KarakasisEnglish

      This paper brings up a theoretical debate on conflict resolution and conflict transformation approaches and explains why the second one is deemed more useful in understanding conflicts.

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      Conflict Resolution Vs Conflict Transformation
    • Conflict Mapping Guide: Our Analysis Tool

      February 2014Birdging EuropeVasileios P. KarakasisEnglish

      This paper sheds light on the theoretical tools that work as a “GPS” and could navigate us throughout the “dark woods” of the convoluted Cyprus conflict.

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      Conflict Mapping Guide- Our Analysis Tool
    • Examining the Momentum of the Joint Declaration

      February 2014Bridging EuropeVasileios P. KarakasisEnglish

      While the attention of internal and external stakeholders might be drawn to the substance and the (ambiguous) content of the joint declaration between President Anastasiades and the Turkish Cypriot Leader Eroglu, one of the main points of this paper is to explain the timing as the key variable in the launch of the 2014 negotiations. The report addresses the interplay between carrots and sticks that makes negotiators consider the momentum of a settlement more than convenient. It also delineates the reasons why EU, US and UN officials strongly believe that the ripe moment to permanently resolve the Cyprus question has finally arrived.

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      Examining the Momentum of the Joint Declaration
    • The “Spirit of Constructive Ambiguity” behind the Joint Declaration

      March 2014Bridging EuropeVasileios P. KarakasisEnglish

      The objective of this report is to cast light on the content of the Joint Declaration and lay out the conflicting interpretations that the disputants “inject” into this document. The report explains that ambiguity is a strategy that peace-negotiators adopt when the kick-off of stalled negotiations are at stake.

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      The “Spirit of Constructive Ambiguity” behind the Joint Declaration
    • Historical background: From Antiquity to the Berlin Congress (1878)

      March 2014Bridging EuropeVasileios P. KarakasisEnglish

      This report embarks upon a journey throughout Cyprus’ history and covers the period starting from antiquity to the Berlin Congress in 1878, when Cyprus was ceded by the Ottoman Empire to the British.

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      The Historical Background- From Antiquity to the Berlin Congress (1878)
    • Rehabilitatie en integratie van oorlogskinderen

      May 2013Sen FoundationJacintha van der Plas, Msc.Dutch

      Amadu is een kindsoldaat. Op 15 jarige leeftijd wordt zijn dorp in Sierra Leone overvallen door het Revolutionary United Front (RUF). Het dorp wordt platgebrand, spullen vernield, mensen vermoord. Het RUF is gekomen om kinderen te rekruteren als soldaten en te vechten tegen de corrupte overheid van de All Peoples Congress (APC). Amadu’s vader wordt voor zijn ogen vermoord. Als Amadu zich niet vrijwillig aansluit bij de RUF zal ook hij vermoord worden. Zonder keuze sluit hij zich aan bij de RUF, waar hij tien jaar lang zal verblijven als kindsoldaat. Als hij op zijn 25e de rebellengroep mag verlaten is zijn dorp verwoest en koestert hij verbitterde gevoelens. Amadu weet niet waar zijn familie is, of zij überhaupt nog in leven zijn. Hij heeft geen opleiding, geen geld, geen huis en weet niet waar hij naartoe moet.

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      Rehabilitatie en integratie van oorlogskinderen
    • Kleine Wapens: bestaand beleid en kansen voor ontwikkeling

      Sen FoundationDutch

      Er vallen ongeveer 500.000 doden per jaar als gevolg van de wijdverspreide beschikbaarheid van SALW (Small Arms and Light Weapons). Hoewel ze groot zijn, zijn de gevolgen van wapenbezit en handel in westerse landen als Nederland, de VS en Zwitserland niet zo breed als in conflictgebieden: “An estimated 300,000 intentional firearms deaths occur annually from armed conflict. Another 200,000 people are killed in countries that are ‘peaceful’. Millions more suffer lifethreatening injury. Less developed countries generally face higher rates of firearms homicide, while developed countries grapple more with firearm suicides.” (Small Arms Survey, 2001: Executive Summary: Ch 6). Er zijn dus veel onnodige doden die voorkomen kunnen worden door wapenwetgeving en veiligheidsmaatregelen aan te scherpen. Maar wapens worden ook gebruikt met niet dodelijke gevolgen zoals verwonding of brengen sociale schade toe door bedreiging, afpersing en andere vormen van corruptie.

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      Kleine Wapens Beleid
    • Regional Cooperation for peace and economic growth

      Sen FoundationVictor MaertensEnglish

      The European Union’s predecessor, the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) was established in the wake of the Second World War in 1952. The ECSC, while at its core an economic community, played a far more vital role bringing 6 belligerent nations of WWII together. One of the reasons for linking these six nations (France, Western Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxemburg) economically was to serve as a means to deter further violence and conflict among them and incorporate Western Germany into Europe.

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      Regional Cooperation for peace and economic growth
  • Security
    • A Border Crossed: The Dutch and French Approaches to Islamic Radicalisation in Comparative Perspective

      August 2017Leiden UniverstityDelphine MeertensEnglish and Dutch

      International and national security agendas are focused on terrorism and Islamic radicalisation since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 in New York City. The pre-phase to (political) violence is often called ‘radicalisation’. This does not necessarily mean that radical views lead to violence. The religious-inspired terror threat in Europe increased when the civil war erupted in Syria in 2011 and Islamist militants of the terrorist organisation Islamic State (IS, former ISIS) declared an Islamic ‘caliphate’ over parts of Iraq and Syria in 2014. An increased outflow of western Muslim youngsters to the Middle East was the result, who were willing to participate in the armed jihad. The recent terrorist attacks in France, Belgium, Germany and the United Kingdom, among other countries, have proved the severeness of this current threat. European countries seek effective and well-coordinated policies to counter these transboundary problems of radicalisation.

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      Masterthesis Delphine Meertens - 2017 - Een Grens Overschreden - Summary
    • The impact of “policy paradigms” on energy security issues in protracted conflict environments: the case of Cyprus

      2017SocioEconomic Challenges (ARMG Publishing)Vasileios P. KarakasisEnglish

      What are the main policy paradigms that guide the opinion leaders throughout energy security matters within protracted conflict environments? Using the de facto divided island of Cyprus as our single case study, we will deliberately follow grounded theory in order to create conceptual definitions out of rudimentary “working ideas” that involve “protracted conflict environment”, “energy security” and stakes in “decision making”. This research enterprise involves open-ended interviews with the opinion-makers on the Island and “political discourse analysis” that identifies the quintessential aspects of the recently emerged energy debate. 

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      The impact of policy paradigms on energy securits issues

    • Reading into the Turkish behavior in the Eastern Mediterranean

      2016in Groen, Adriaan in 't, Roon Charlotte de & Slaman, Pieter (eds.) Leids-Haags Allegorieen Lexicon, Delft: Eburon, pp. 71-78Vasileios P. KarakasisEnglish

      In 2010 an important amount of gas reserves was detected off the southern part of the island of Cyprus. The authorities of the Republic of Cyprus provided licenses to energy companies to start drilling in the region. Turkey reacted against these developments by dispatching its own seismic vessels escorted by frigates. This raised serious security concerns and increased the possibility of the escalation of this dispute into an armed conflict, especially in 2011 and 2014. This chapter sheds light on Turkey’s security concerns around the island of Cyprus. What are the main stimulants that prompted the Turkish course of action in these two cases in the way they did? What is the mélange of fears, interests and ideas at play? The purpose of this paper is to figure out the stakes for Turkish foreign policy around the island of Cyprus. Although the official line adopted by the Turkish officials has been that the seismic vessel they dispatched at the Eastern Mediterranean aimed at the protection of the Turkish Cypriot rights on the natural resources of the island, the author assumes that the stakes for Turkey move beyond that. Economic calculations, fears and security considerations with respect to Turkey’s role in the region will be analyzed.

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      Reading into the Turkish behavior in the Eastern Mediterranean
    • Insecurity and Common Interests in Security

      March 2016OSCEJoris VoorhoeveEnglish

      Much of what is wrong in our world has a common cause: the abuse of political, economic, military and media power. Full rule of law curbs the perennial inclination of the powerful to abuse the powers entrusted to them. Are governments seeking to serve the well-being of their citizens, or are government leaders seeking less elevated personal goals? Do they restrict or eliminate their critics, upset the international status quo, change borders, or create confrontation, encouraging nationalism to solidify popular support in the short run? The latter approach fuels military expenditure and conflict and harms the long-term interests of countless people.

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      Insecurity and Common Interests in Security
    • Energy Security and the Cyprus Question: “Securitization” of Energy in the Eastern Mediterranean

      2015IAPSS Political Science Journal, Vol. 27(1), pp. 5-35 (peer-reviewed)Vasileios P. KarakasisEnglish

      In February 2014, Nikos Anastasiades, the President of the Republic of Cyprus and Dervis Eroglu, the Turkish-Cypriot leader, signed a Joint Declaration that established certain “ground-rules” upon which the then stalled peace talks -aiming at the island’s reunification could be revived. The main stimulant prompting this evolution was the discovery of new energy sources in the Eastern Mediterranean, and especially offshore the RoC. In October 2014, Turkish navigational warning notified mariners that Turkey would soon perform its seismic surveys in sea areas that encroach on Cyprus’s EEZ, raising concerns on the escalation of the intractable and protracted Cyprus conflict. Aim of this research project is to provide readers with an insight on how the flow between energy and power politics is played out in the Eastern Mediterranean. Suggesting that the existing tensions extend beyond the struggle over the existing material energy assets in the seabed of the Levant Basin, the project casts light upon the notion of energy security by setting forth the indicators it is composed of. While scrutinizing the statements of the leaders on these events and seeking to highlight the security discourses they are coming up with, the project resorts to discourse analysis.

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      Energy Security and the Cyprus Question- “Securitization” of Energy in the Eastern Mediterranean
    • First Reflections in the Recent Russian-Cypriot Deal

      March 2015Bridging EuropeVasileios P. KarakasisEnglish

      Putin and Anastasiades sought to play down the geopolitical character of this agreement, clarifying that it is mainly driven by humanitarian purposes and Russia’s intention to participate in internationally orchestrated initiatives to combat terrorism and piracy. We anticipate, though, that important players of the international community will greet this deal with suspicion

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      First reflections in the recent Russian-Cypriot Deal
    • The energy security question􀍟 in the Easte􀆌n Mediterranean: Understanding the recent tensions (part 1)

      October 2014Bridging EuropeVasileios P. KarakasisEnglish

      The discovery of new energy sources in the Eastern Mediterranean, and especially offshore the Republic of Cyprus, was believed to provide sufficient incentives to overcome the Cyprus intractable conflict. Gas was presented as the big game-changer and as a potential catalyst for a restart of the peace process, and possibly for its successful conclusion. Eight (8) months later this optimistic picture does not seem evident in the short-term horizon. This report explains why. Its aim is to help readers comprehend that the recent tensions flared up between Turkey and the Republic of Cyprus have not appeared out of the blue. It provides them with a detailed background-an insight on how the flow between energy and power politics displays in the Eastern Mediterranean, a region riven by long-standing conflicts.

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      The energy security question in the Eastern Mediterranean
    • Geography Matters

      February 2014Bridging EuropeVasileios P. KarakasisEnglish

      This paper briefly explains why Cyprus conflict is one of those cases where geography remains a key variable in shaping the grand strategy of states.

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      Geography Matters
    • Sailing over the History of the International Law of the Sea

      January 2014Bridging EuropeVasileios P. KarakasisEnglish

      The report lays the ground-rules within which the stakeholders in the Eastern Mediterranean are assumed to pursue their interests. It presents the historical development of the international law of the sea and navigates the reader throughout the historical journey that concluded to the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS III).

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      Sailing over the History of the International Law of the Sea
    • Kleine wapens: Massavernietiging in slow motion

      June 2012Internationale SpectatorFieke Uitentuis and Joris VoorhoeveDutch

      Massavernietigingwapens zoals kernwapens en chemische en biologische strijdmiddelen wekken bij de publieke opinie en degenen die begaan zijn met vraagstukken van oorlog en vrede grote afschuw. Deze categorieën wapens trekken in internationaal overleg veel aandacht. Maar in Werkelijkheid van de laatste 65 jaar maakten kleine conventionele wapens vele malen meer slachtoffers. Er is alle reden de proliferatie van vooral de gewone kleine wapens krachtig te bestrijden.

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      20120600_is_art_uitentuis
    • Kleine Wapens: bestaand beleid en kansen voor ontwikkeling

      Sen FoundationDutch

      Er vallen ongeveer 500.000 doden per jaar als gevolg van de wijdverspreide beschikbaarheid van SALW (Small Arms and Light Weapons). Hoewel ze groot zijn, zijn de gevolgen van wapenbezit en handel in westerse landen als Nederland, de VS en Zwitserland niet zo breed als in conflictgebieden: “An estimated 300,000 intentional firearms deaths occur annually from armed conflict. Another 200,000 people are killed in countries that are ‘peaceful’. Millions more suffer lifethreatening injury. Less developed countries generally face higher rates of firearms homicide, while developed countries grapple more with firearm suicides.” (Small Arms Survey, 2001: Executive Summary: Ch 6). Er zijn dus veel onnodige doden die voorkomen kunnen worden door wapenwetgeving en veiligheidsmaatregelen aan te scherpen. Maar wapens worden ook gebruikt met niet dodelijke gevolgen zoals verwonding of brengen sociale schade toe door bedreiging, afpersing en andere vormen van corruptie.

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      Kleine Wapens Beleid
    • Jihadisme in Noordelijk Afrika

      2012Sen Foundation and Nederlandse Defensie AcademieSoumia Ait-Hida, Theo BrinkelDutch

      Sinds de jaren negentig zijn op veel plaatsen in de wereld jihadistische terroristische organisaties actief. Zoals bijvoorbeeld in Afghanistan, Irak, Indonesië en Somalië. Niet alleen ver weg, ook in het meer nabije Noord Afrika baart een terroristische organisatie die zichzelf noemt “Al-Qaida in de Islamitische Maghreb” (AQIM), de nodige zorgen. En in het olierijke Nigeria, een dichtbevolkt land op de scheidslijn tussen islam en christendom, lijkt de ideologie van al-Qaida in opkomst met het optreden van de terroristische organisatie “Boko Haram”, die alles wat westers is verwerpelijk vindt.

      De voorliggende rapportage bevat de tweede druk van een analyse van twee jihadistische extremistische organisaties en bewegingen in Noordelijk Afrika. De voorbeelden – AQIM en Boko Haram – zijn genomen uit de landen van de Maghreb, de Sahel en het grensgebied tussen islam en christendom.

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      Jihadisme in Noordelijk Afrika
  • Speeches and (Media) Articles
    • Insecurity and Common Interests in Security

      March 2016OSCEJoris VoorhoeveEnglish

      Much of what is wrong in our world has a common cause: the abuse of political, economic, military and media power. Full rule of law curbs the perennial inclination of the powerful to abuse the powers entrusted to them. Are governments seeking to serve the well-being of their citizens, or are government leaders seeking less elevated personal goals? Do they restrict or eliminate their critics, upset the international status quo, change borders, or create confrontation, encouraging nationalism to solidify popular support in the short run? The latter approach fuels military expenditure and conflict and harms the long-term interests of countless people.

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      Insecurity and Common Interests in Security
    • Reflections on Good Governance

      December 2016Sen FoundationJoris VoorhoeveEnglish

      Good governance improves human rights. Full implementation of the Universal Declaration on Human Rights is the highest goal. The UN treaties on human rights specify all. The best system of government is free representative democracy. Illiberal democracy, populist direct democracy, referendum democracy, theocracy and autocracy do not lead to good government.

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      Reflections on Good Governance
    • Safe Areas? Failures and Successes in Protecting Civilians in War.

      2015Atlas ContactJoris VoorhoeveEnglish

      What measures are to be taken by the international community to protect civilians in a war which cannot be ended by an external humanitarian intervention? How to execute more effectively the Responsibility to Protect? This book tries to answer these questions by comparing 15 cases in recent international history. From 1948 till 2014 eight more or less succesfull interventions by the international community stand against 7 serious failures.

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      Press-release-Safe-Areas
    • Veilige Gebieden? Falen en Slagen bij het Beschermen van Burgers in Oorlog.

      2015Atlas ContactJoris VoorhoeveDutch and German
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      Persbericht-Veilige-Gebieden
    • Capabilities and Social Justice

      January 2014University of Humanistic StudiesAmartya SenEnglish

      I have been asked to speak about the new directions of research in the use of the capability perspective in the epistemology of human flourishing and the ethics of public policy making. In a recent book, The Idea of Justice, published in 2009, I have tried to argue that our understanding of the idea of justice and of its conceptual as well as practical implications demands some fairly radical departures from the mainstream theories of human prosperity and of social justice that are dominant at the present time.

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      Capabilities and Social Justice
    • ‘Internationale samenwerking is logisch. Dat kan niet anders.’

      June 2013TrouwJoris VoorhoeveDutch

      Oud-minister Voorhoeve wilgezamenlijke aanpak financiële criminaliteit.

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      Bestrijding Financiële Criminaliteit
    • Kleine wapens: Massavernietiging in slow motion

      June 2012Internationale SpectatorFieke Uitentuis and Joris VoorhoeveDutch

      Massavernietigingwapens zoals kernwapens en chemische en biologische strijdmiddelen wekken bij de publieke opinie en degenen die begaan zijn met vraagstukken van oorlog en vrede grote afschuw. Deze categorieën wapens trekken in internationaal overleg veel aandacht. Maar in Werkelijkheid van de laatste 65 jaar maakten kleine conventionele wapens vele malen meer slachtoffers. Er is alle reden de proliferatie van vooral de gewone kleine wapens krachtig te bestrijden.

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      20120600_is_art_uitentuis
    • Hoe op te treden tegen “kruipende rampen”?

      January 2012Sen FoundationJoanette van der MeyDutch and German

      Het boek “Negen Plagen Tegelijk” geeft een overzicht van de gevaren die de wereldbevolking bedreigen. Nu is de vraag: welke effectieve maatregelen tegen langzaam voortschrijdende mondiale dreigingen kunnen worden genomen. Daarover vond op 30 januari 2012 een brainstorm – discussie plaats in Den Haag.

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      Verslag-Brainstormsessie-voor-de-Sen-Foundation-in-Den-Haag
    • Europe’s past and the global future

      November 2010Amartya Sen

      When Edmund Burke declared in his Reflections on the Revolution in France, “the glory of Europe is extinguished for ever,” his obituarial note gave very little hint that Europe was, right at that time – in the eighteenth century – ushering in a transformative phase in world history. The European Enlightenment not only changed the institutional structures governing societies and states, it was a gigantic influence in establishing the basic understanding that public reasoning is essential for making societies better. Social improvement through systematic reasoning was a prominent component of the intellectual animation of the European Enlightenment. I will argue that the role of Europe in our troubled world today can be more sure-footed as well as more constructive if greater use is made of that heritage. What emerged firmly in eighteenth century Europe, riding on the back of the European Renaissance earlier, remains deeply relevant and constructive today.

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      Europe's past and the global future
    • Opmerkingen Joris Voorhoeve op de Duits-Nederlandse Conferentie

      November 2010Duits-Nederlandse ConferentieJoris VoorhoeveDutch and German

      Goed bestuur van een land vereist goed functionerende instellingen en zelfstandig denkende mensen. In Nederland is steeds aangenomen dat aan beide voorwaarden ruim werd voldaan. Maar de onrust over de recente verkiezingen en de kabinetsformatie toont weinig reden voor tevredenheid. Veel commentatoren in binnen- en buitenland en Nederlandse burgers en instellingen zijn bezorgd over de groei van wat losjes rechts populisme wordt genoemd. Wat is dit verschijnsel, wat zijn de oorzaken en mogelijke gevolgen?

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      Opm-NedDuitse-Conf-2010-Dutch Opm-NedDuitse-Conf-2010-German
    • Aspecten van anti-internationalisme

      December 2010Sen FoundationJoris VoorhoeveDutch

      In de laatste tien jaar is de vanzelfsprekendheid van steun voor internationale samenwerking in Nederland verdwenen. Dit bleek duidelijk bij de meerderheid van nee-stemmers tegen het referendum over het nieuwe verdrag voor de Europese Unie. Het blijkt ook uit enigszins afnemende steun voor ontwikkelingssamenwerking. Het opvallendst was de opkomst van een electorale “tegenbeweging” die door Pim Fortuyn werd gemobiliseerd en sinds zijn dood door Geert Wilders. In het buitenland verbazen velen zich over de verandering van het beeld van Nederland, dat in de voorgaande decennia zeer internationalistisch was.

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      Aspecten van anti-internationalisme
    • 60 years Genocide Convention

      December 2008International Court of JusticeJoris VoorhoeveEnglish

      The Genocide Convention of 1948 was a major step towards recognition of the other grounds. All groups of people have a right to live and develop in peace, not be destroyed in war or civil war, or be eliminated by other measures such as starvation. The convention makes those persons aiming at the destruction of such groups punishable under international law. The general concept of crimes against humanity, which played already a key role in the Nuremberg and Tokyo Tribunals, was specified by this convention against the wilful destruction of specific population groups.

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      60 years genocide convention
    • Development of Global Political Values

      December 2008Peace PalaceJoris VoorhoeveEnglish

      Global communications encourage global values. The ideal of global values gives us a warm feeling. Growth of common ethics across borders correlates to some extent with economic, cultural, religious and other contacts. But we know from the relations between France, Germany and Great Britain in the 19th century that intensive interchange in commerce, academia, religion, philosophy and the arts does not simply lead to peaceful progress. Violence and war, even irrational mutual destruction, is as much an aspect of internationalisation as feelings of mutual interest and community. The First World War came after many decades of progress and rapid internationalisation.

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      Development of Global Political Values